Tourism Kerala

Kerala - God's Own Country , a state situated on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. Named as one of the ten paradises of the world by National Geographic Traveler, Kerala is famous especially for its ecotourism initiatives and beautiful backwaters. Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, have made Kerala one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Growing at a rate of 13.31%, the tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy.

Kerala is an established destination for both domestic as well as foreign tourists. Kerala is well known for its beaches, backwaters in Alappuzha and Kollam, mountain ranges and wildlife sanctuaries. Other popular attractions in the state include the beaches at Kovalam, Kappad, Cherai and Varkala; backwater tourism and lake resorts around Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam; hill stations and resorts at Munnar, Wayanad, Nelliampathi, Vagamon, and Ponmudi; and national parks and wildlife sanctuaries at Periyar, Parambikulam, and Eravikulam National Park. The

Kerala Review and Economy of the State

Keralam, the land of kera or coconut, is a never-ending array of coconut palms…sun blanched beaches…kettuvallams over enchanting backwaters… magical monsoon showers…silent valleys vibrant with flora and fauna…misty mountains of the Western Ghats…fragrance of spices…evenings reverberating with the rhythm of a thousand artforms...fairs and festivals... Welcome to Kerala benign and beautiful!

Backwaters & Rivers

The backwaters are a peculiar feature of the state. Canals link the lakes and backwaters to facilitate an uninterrupted inland water navigation system from Thiruvananthapuram to Vadakara, a distance of 450 kms. The Vembanad lake stretching from Alappuzha to Kochi is the biggest water body in the state and is over 200 sq.kms. in area. Kuttanad in Alappuzha district alone has more than 20 per cent of India's total length of waterways.The important rivers from north to south are; Valapattanam river (110 kms.), Chaliar (69 kms.), Kadalundipuzha (130 kms.), Bharathapuzha (209 kms.), Chalakudy river (130 kms.), Periyar (244 kms), Pamba (176 kms), Achancoil (128 kms.) and Kalladayar (121 kms.). Other than these, there are 35 more small rivers and rivulets flowing down from the Ghats. Most of these rivers are navigable up to the midland region, in country crafts.

Kerala at Glance
Date of Formation 1 November 1956
Location South West tip of the India's main land/North latitude between 8o 18` and 12o 48`East longitude between 74o 52` and 77o 22`
Capital Thiruvananthapuram
Area 38,863 sq.km.
Principal Language Malayalam
Currency Indian Rupee
National Festival Onam
State Animal Elephant
State Bird The Great Indian Hornbill(Buceros bicornis)
State Flower Kanikonna(Cassia fistula)
State Tree Coconut Tree(Cocos nucifera)
Staple Food Rice
State Fish Pearl Spot ("Karimeen" in Malayalam)(Etroplus suratensis)
Neighbouring States/ Union Territories Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Lakshadeep
CENSUS OF INDIA 2011- PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT KERALA
Demography Population 3,34,06,061
Male 1,60,27,412
Female 1,73,78,649
Sex Ratio (Females Per 1000 males) 1,084
Population density 860/sq.km
Urban Population 1,59,34,926
Rural Population 1,74,71, 135
Decadal Growth rate 4.9
Child Population (0-6 years): Total 34,72,955
Rural Child Population 18,23,664
Urban Child Population 16,49,291
Scheduled Caste Population 30,39,573
Scheduled Tribe Population 4,84,839
Literacy Rate 2,81,35,824
Male Literacy Rate 1,37,04,903
Female Literacy Rate 1,44,30,921
Literacy Rate(%) 94.0
Male literacy Rate(%) 96.1
Female Literacy Rate(%) 92.1
Rural Literacy Rate 1,45,49,320
Urban Literacy Rate 1,35,86,504
No. of Administrative Units
Districts 14
Taluks 63
Villages 1018
Grama Panchayats 941
No. of Community Development Blocks 152
District Panchayats 14
Assembly Seats 140+ 1 Anglo Indian Nominee
Lok Sabha Seats 20+ 1 Anglo Indian Nominee
Rajya Sabha seats 9
Municipalities 86
Cantonments 1(Kannur)
Township 1(Guruvayoor)
Legislative Constituencies 140
Largest District Idukki
Smallest District Alappuzha
Longest river Periyar
Highest peak Anamudi
Largest Lake Vembanadu Lake

* All administrative units are as on 31-12-2009, the date of freezing of administrative boundaries for Census

Source: censusindia.gov.in

Education (Source: Economic Review – 2014)

Like other states in the country, the state of Kerala has inherited the education system from the British and has made significant changes in it in the past 65 years. The educational achievement of the state is the prime factor behind its present well-being and the “Kerala Model of Development”, which is highly lauded. It is a fact that the State is far ahead of the national objectives in the Primary and Secondary education and is striving for attaining international standards in Higher education, Technical education and Research.The Twelfth Plan document states that the private sector will be encouraged to establish larger and higher quality institutions in the Twelfth Plan. It also states that new models of Public–Private Partnerships (PPP) in higher education will be encouraged in the XIIth Plan, particularly in the establishment of research and innovation institutions. With the successful implementation of SSA and RMSA the Central Government is now introducing the scheme Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA), in order to achieve the objectives of equity, access and excellence in the Higher Education sector.In this platform Kerala is re-orienting its approaches and the institutional arrangements. The State Planning Board has constituted an expert committee on Education for examining the Plan Programmes of the state with a view to maximise access to central schemes and plan resources and prepare an action plan suggesting steps to remove barriers in accessing resources and difficulties in implementation. The committee had submitted two interim reports.

Population (Source: Economic Review 2014)

The growth rate of Kerala’s population during the last ten years is 4.9 per cent, the lowest rate among Indian states. National rate of growth of population during the last ten years is 17.6 per cent. The population growth trend shows that Kerala is moving towards zero population growth or towards negative growth. Among the districts Malappuram has the highest growth rate of 13.4 percent, while Pathanamthitta has the lowest growth rate (- 3.0 per cent). Idukki also has a negative growth rate (-1.8 per cent).It reveals that the growth rate of six southern districts (Idukki, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kollam, Pathanamthitta and Thiruvananthapuram) is lower growth rate .Population is one of the important drivers of economic growth. It helps to determine the size of workforce as well. As per the final data published by the Directorate of Census, Kerala’s population as on March 2011 was 3,34,06,061. Out of this 1,60,27,412 (48 per cent) are males and 1,73,78,649 (52 per cent) are females. When the last census was taken, these figures were 3,18,41,374 total, 1,54,68,614 (48.6 percent) males and 1,63,72,760 (51.4 percent) females.

Demography

Kerala is a unique state, quite unlike the rest of India in many ways. It has a dense and rapidly ageing population, which is characterized by high literacy and social indicators on par with developed economies . However unemployment, over dependence on the service sector, inter-district inequality, pockets of extreme deprivation, a rapidly decreasing farm sector and a large fiscal and revenue deficit are some of the concerns that Government of Kerala is grappling with. Rapid urbanization also calls for greater attention on housing, transport, waste management, drinking water and so on. All this calls for systematic improvements in planning and implementation, so that optimum results are attained with the limited resources available.

Rainfall (Economic Review-2013)

The pre monsoon rainfall received in the State from 1st March 2013 to 31st May 2013 was normal with a departure of -42 per cent from the normal. The actual rainfall received during the period was 218.9 mm. All the Districts except Kottayam and Wayanad recorded deficient rainfall. The percentage departure from normal was highest in Palakkad (-56per cent), Malappuram( -56 per cent) and Thrissur ( -56 per cent ) Districts. South West monsoon current advanced over the Andaman Sea 3 days earlier than its normal date of 20th May and set in over Kerala on its normal date of 1st June. The South West monsoon covered the entire country by 16th June, about 1 month earlier than its normal date of 15th July. Out of the total 36 meteorological subdivisions, 14 subdivisions constituting 48 per cent of the total area of the country received excess season rainfall, 16 subdivisions (38 per cent of the total area of the country) received normal season rainfall and the remaining 6 subdivisions (14 per cent of the total area of the country) received deficient season rainfall.Out of the total of 641 districts, 100 were affected by moderate meteorological drought (seasonal rainfall deficiency of 26 per cent to 50 per cent), while 39 were affected by severe meteorological drought (seasonal rainfall deficiency of 51 per cent to 99 per cent). The actual rainfall received in Kerala during the South West Monsoon season (1st June to 30th September 2013) was 2570.3 mm as against the normal rainfall of 2039.6 mm which was 26 per cent excess. During the previous SW monsoon (2012) Kerala had received an actual rainfall of 1551.3 mm which was -24 per cent deficient. During 2013 SW monsoon season, 10 districts in the State received excess rainfall and 4 districts viz. Wayanad, Thrissur, Pathanamthitta and Kasaragod had normal rainfall. Excess rainfall was maximum in Idukki District with 47 per cent departure from normal.

Irrigation and Water Sources (Source: Economic Review 2013)

The growth performance of the agriculture and allied sector has been fluctuating across the plan periods. It witnessed a negative growth rate of 1.3 per cent in XIth Five Year Plan while a positive growth of 1.8 per cent in Xth Plan period.But there has been a turnaround in 2012-13, with the quick estimate indicating a growth rate of 4.39 per cent over the previous year,the sub sector wise growth rate being agriculture (5.62per cent), forestry and logging (1.26per cent) and fisheries (-2.79per cent). The revival is reported mainly due to the dynamism in the livestock sector.Although the share has fallen to 8.95 per cent of GSDP, the robust performance of the sector in line with others is a matter to cheer considering the agrarian nature of the state and the role that it plays in providing livelihood to the people .

Agriculture (Source: Economic review 2013)

The growth performance of the agriculture and allied sector has been fluctuating across the plan periods. It witnessed a negative growth rate of 1.3 per cent in XIth Five Year Plan while a positive growth of 1.8 per cent in Xth Plan period.But there has been a turnaround in 2012-13, with the quick estimate indicating a growth rate of 4.39 per cent over the previous year,the sub sector wise growth rate being agriculture (5.62per cent), forestry and logging (1.26per cent) and fisheries (-2.79per cent). The revival is reported mainly due to the dynamism in the livestock sector.Although the share has fallen to 8.95 per cent of GSDP, the robust performance of the sector in line with others is a matter to cheer considering the agrarian nature of the state and the role that it plays in providing livelihood to the people .

Fisheries: (Source: Economic review-2013)

TAs per the population census 2011, the fisher folk population in Kerala is 10.02 lakh covering 7.71 lakh in coastal area and 2.31 lakh in inland sector. It is also estimated that about 74100 people are engaged in fishery – allied activities. This fishermen of the state contribute about 9 per cent of the GSDP from the agriculture sector which gives the significance of the sector to the state economy. The total fishermen population in Alappuzha district is 1.68 lakh which is the highest fishermen populated district, followed by Thiruvananthapuram (1.65 lakh) and Ernakulam (1.33 lakh). The district wise details of fisherfolk population are given in Appendix 2.40. The Gross State Domestic Product of the State has increased by about 69 per cent during the period from 2005-06 to 2012-13 and the share of fisheries sector in the State Domestic Product has declined from 1.3 to 0.82 per cent in the same period. The share of Primary Sector in GSDP has also declined from 17.1 to 9.3 per cent.Marine fish landings of India during the year 2012 has provisionally been estimated as 3.32 million tones with a decrease of about 0.05 million tonnes compared to the estimate for the last year. Among the states Gujarat was the highest contributor of Marine fish production followed by Kerala. In total fish production Andhra Pradesh was the highest contributor and Kerala stands 4th position. During 2012-13, 5.31 lakh tonnes of marine fish were landed in Kerala showing a decline of 0.22 lakh tonnes (4.14 per cent) over the previous year. The high value species among the fish catches are still few, prominent among them are Seer fish, Prawn, Ribbon fish and Mackerel. The quality of these high value species in the total catch ultimately decides the income of the fishermen.

Energy Conservation (Source: Economic Review-2013)

Energy plays a vital role in the socio-economic development and human welfare of a State. Apart from its contribution to economic development, it contributes significantly to revenue generation, employment and enhances the quality of life. Per-capita power consumption is considered as an indicator for measuring the standard of living of the society. Making available the required quantity of power at affordable price is the responsibility of the state. The possibility of tapping non-conventional sources of energy and private participation in energy development, conserving depleting reserves and controlling rising prices are thrust areas. Development of the power sector is the key to the economic development

Political background

When Kerala was formed, the State was under President\'s rule. The new State went to the polls for the first time in March 1957. There were 126 Assembly and 16 Parliamentary seats. The Communist Party of India emerged as the single largest party in the Assembly with 60 seats. Shri E.M.S.Namboodiripad formed an 11 member ministry on April 5, 1957 with the support of some independents. Political agitation and unrest extending over several months, culminated in the taking over of the administration of the State and the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly, under Article 356 of the Constitution, by the president of India, on July 31, 1959.Politics in Kerala has been dominated by four political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Communist Party, the Muslim League and the Bharatiya Janata Party.